Textile machinery industry

There are two types of textile machinery manufacturing: one is to manufacture the whole machine, and the other is to manufacture special spare parts (such as spindles, cradle, steel collar, wire ring, knitting needle, card clothing, heald, menstruation). Film, etc.). The special equipment for manufacturing the entire textile machine factory accounts for a small proportion of the whole plant equipment, so under certain conditions, it is possible to change the variety to produce other machinery. The proportion of factory-specific equipment and special assembly lines for manufacturing special-purpose parts is large (especially knitting needles and card clothing), and it is difficult to change varieties. In each processing type, the proportion of casters is gradually decreasing, and the proportion of cold stamping, grinding, electroplating, polishing, etc. is gradually increasing. CNC machine tools and multi-station automatic machine tools partially replace special machine tools, which enhance the adaptability and flexibility of production.

The textile machinery has strong manufacturability, complex structure and many parts. It needs to be pre-assembled or partially assembled before leaving the factory, and then subjected to production test or partial production test to ensure that the machine quality meets the requirements. The textile machinery factory has a well-equipped testing department.

There are many kinds of textile machinery parts, such as 1200-1500 kinds of double-cylinder sock machine parts, and the processing steps of parts are diverse. If a factory produces a variety of machines at the same time, it is necessary to properly arrange the production rhythm and front-to-back connection of the parts to ensure that the variety and quantity of parts required for the entire machine assembly can be provided on the assembly line as scheduled. Modern textile machinery industry adopts new management methods and methods such as computer and system engineering to manage enterprises.

The textile machinery industry is interdependent and mutually reinforcing with many other industrial sectors. For example, the steel for the production of knitting needles requires good elongation, toughness, necessary hardness, rigidity and elasticity, which requires the steel for the smelting and rolling of the metallurgical industry. The textile machinery needs motors that provide special functions in the motor industry, such as torque motors and stepping motors; high starting torque, high working time rate, textile special motors that can withstand harsh environments; DC motors with variable speed performance and variable frequency motors Wait. The electrical and electronic industry is required to provide high-quality components and more complex automatic control devices and microprocessors and microcomputers that can withstand 8000 hours of continuous operation per year. It is required that the petrochemical industry provide oil-resistant synthetic resin which is invariably deformed in lubricating grease for a long time and is superior to non-ferrous metals, and is used for manufacturing transmission parts, bearings and seals, etc., and also needs various engineering plastics and reinforced plastics with excellent performance. Wood with an increasingly scarce resource, or instead of metal to reduce weight and inertia, improve corrosion resistance, wear resistance and other properties. The rubber industry is required to provide various transmission belts, roll wrapping materials, aprons, various cushioning parts, etc., and other mechanical industries are required to provide general-purpose speed reducers, universal transmission parts, universal clutches, couplings, brakes and other mechanical parts. In addition, in order to meet the needs of aerospace technology, automotive industry, weapons industry, new technologies, new materials, new structures, such as high-precision, high-speed rolling bearings, carbon fiber reinforced plastics, micro-compressed air lines and valve parts, hydraulic torque Converters, hydraulic transmissions, and jet technology have also begun to be used in textile machinery to promote high speed and high efficiency.

After decades of development, China’s textile machinery industry has made great progress. However, compared with the world’s advanced technology, there are still some gaps and some serious problems. The overall technical level of textile machinery is low, the product development and innovation capabilities are weak, and the investment in research and development is insufficient. The technological transformation of enterprises is not enough, and the manufacturing technology is backward. The domestic basic industry is weak, and the basic supporting parts cannot keep up, which affects the quality of textile machinery products and the improvement of the level of mechatronics. The development of textile machinery products lacks organic cooperation with the process, which affects the use of textile machinery products. The policy is not matched, which affects the competitiveness of domestic textile machinery products. In response to these problems, China’s textile machinery industry has taken a series of measures to vigorously develop textile machinery infrastructure, introduce foreign textile machinery technology, differentiated development strategies, and the country’s corresponding policies to support the development of textile machinery, and achieved good results.
From 2008 to 2010, with the rapid development of the world and China’s textile industry, the greater the demand for textile machinery, the development of China’s textile machinery industry is facing a good opportunity. It is estimated that by 2010, driven by the upgrading of textile machinery, the output value of new products of China’s textile machinery industry will increase from 25% in 2005 to 50% in 2010; the export value of textile machinery products will account for more than 30% of the same period; The numerical control rate of textile machinery industry equipment will reach more than 10%, among which key key enterprises will reach 15%-20%; the key parts of major textile machinery products and the finishing process capability index of new special basic parts will reach 1-1.25. . Therefore, the development space of China’s textile machinery industry is huge.

Development history of textile machinery

Humans originally used natural fibers as raw materials for spinning and weaving, earlier than the invention of the text (see World Textile History, Chinese Textile History). China used hand-spinning spinning in the Spring and Autumn Period and the Warring States Period. In the Song Dynasty, it has invented more than 30 spindles of hydraulic spinning. In 1769, the British R. Ark Wright (also translated by Richard Acklet) made a hydro-spinning machine. In 1779, the British S. Crompton (Samuel Crompton) invented the spinning machine. After being introduced to the United States, American J. Thorpe invented the ring spinning machine in 1828, which increased productivity by several times due to continuous spinning. The loom in the Warring States Period of China has used the principle of leverage to drive the heald frame to complete the opening action with the pedal link. In 1733, the British J. Kay (also translated by John Kay) invented the shuttle, hitting the shuttle to make it fly at a high speed, and the productivity of the loom was doubled. In 1785, the British E. Cartwright (also translated by Edmont Carterett) invented the power loom. In the same year, the UK built the world’s first steam-powered cotton mill, which was the textile industry from the handicraft industry to the big industry. A turning point in the production transition. The progress of human society and the increase of population have promoted the development of the textile industry and correspondingly promoted the improvement of textile machinery. Energy reform (replacement of manpower and animal power with steam power) laid the foundation for modern textile machinery.
The advent of man-made fibers at the end of the 19th century broadened the field of textile machinery and added a category of chemical fiber machinery. The demand for synthetic fibers has increased, and the expansion of synthetic fiber spinning equipment has been promoted (spinning screw diameters up to 200 mm, daily production of single spinning machines to 100 tons) and high speed (spinning speeds of 3,000 to 4,000 meters). / points) direction development. In the fastest growing countries in the world’s synthetic fiber industry, equipment is renewed in almost 5 to 6 years, and the number of machines has doubled in 10 years. In the past 20 years, the spinning and weaving equipment has made many local improvements to adapt to chemical fiber pure spinning or blending with natural fibers, such as expanding the range of suitable fiber length of the drafting mechanism and eliminating static electricity on the fiber. In the dyeing and finishing, high temperature and high pressure dyeing equipment, heat setting equipment, resin finishing equipment and loose finishing equipment have been developed.
Humans have been spinning and weaving in the traditional way for more than 6,000 years. The spinning and weaving machine designed to the present principles is still the main equipment of the world textile industry. However, since the 1950s, some new processes have been created, partially replacing traditional methods to produce textiles with much higher efficiency, such as rotor spinning, non-woven fabrics, and the like. The new process bred new textile equipment, and the new textile equipment matured and promoted, which further promoted the textile industry to move forward.