Spunbond Nonwoven Key process factors


Key process factors

The key process factors of spunbond nonwoven technology are polymer throughput rate, polymer melting temperature, quench air temperature, quench air velocity, and lay-down velocity. These process factors play important roles in deciding the morphology and diameter of the filaments which are the building block of any spunbond nonwovens. The bonding parameters are also important and their effects are already discussed earlier.

The polymer throughput rate determines the morphology and diameter of the filaments. The morphology of the filaments spun at lower throughput rate is better developed than those at higher throughput rate. Because the rhelogical conditions are more favorable for crystallinity and orientation of the filaments spun at lower throughput rate. The filaments spun at lower throughput rate are thus more stable than those spun at higher throughput rate. The filament diameter increases with increasing throughput rate.

The polymer melting temperature influences on the drawing of the filaments through the spinneret that in turn decides the diameter of the filaments. The lower polymer melting temperature results in increase in melt viscosity of the polymer that leads to difficulty in drawing of the filaments. On the other hand, the higher melting temperature results in decrease in the melt viscosity of the polymer that makes drawing easier. Too high polymer melting temperature can cause polymer degradation leading to filament breakages.

There is a great debate going on the effect of quench air temperature on the diameter and morphology of the filaments. One group of researcher argues that the lower quench air temperature results in increase of viscosity that leads to slower draw-down which finally resulting in higher filament diameter. As the draw-down takes place slowly, an increase in crystallinity and orientation is observed. The other group argues that lower quench air temperature is helpful in generating higher spinline stress that leads to reduction in filament diameter. As the draw-down takes places under higher stress, an increase in crystallinity and orientation is observed.

The quench air pressure has a role to decide filament diameter. Higher quench air pressure increases spinline draw ratio that in turn reduces filament diameter. The pressure drop is known to be proportional to air velocity.

The web is formed by the pneumatic deposition of the filament bundles onto a moving belt. In order to obtain maximum uniformity and cover, the individual filaments must be separated before reaching to the belt. This can be accomplished by inducing an electrostatic charge onto the bundle while under tension and before deposition. This can be achieved by high voltage corona discharge. The belt is usually made of an electrically grounded conductive wire, which discharge the filaments upon deposition. Sometimes mechanical or aerodynamic forces can also separate filaments. If the lay-down conveyor belt is moving and filaments are being rapidly traversed across the direction of motion, the filaments are being deposited in a zig-zag pattern on the surface of the moving belt.

nonwoven equipment

SUNTECH Textile Mac

SUNTECH Textile Machinery issued maintenance and management recommendations for non-woven equipment

We can now use non-woven fabrics in many industries. There are many advantages of non-woven fabrics, which meet the needs of users and will not pollute the environment. Therefore, non-woven fabrics have gradually developed in the market. Chance.

The mass production of non-woven fabrics is indispensable for the role of non-woven equipment. When using non-woven equipment, customers need to do a good job of maintenance. SUNTECH shares with you the maintenance and management suggestions for non-woven equipment.

   1. Raw materials must be stacked neatly and orderly

  2. All maintenance, spare parts and other tools should be collected and stored in the tool box

   3. It is strictly forbidden to place flammable, explosive and other dangerous items on the equipment

  4, the parts used should be kept clean

  5, all parts of the equipment must be regularly oiled and anti-rust work

  6. ​​Clean the product contact surface of the production line in time before turning on the equipment to ensure that it is clean and free of debris

  7. The work area around the equipment must be kept clean and free of debris

   8. The electrical control device of the equipment should be kept clean and intact. Regularly check the chain lubrication condition and add lubricating oil to the insufficient ones.

These measures are the maintenance actions that should be taken when using non-woven equipment, which is very helpful for maintaining the performance of non-woven equipment, and can maintain high production efficiency of non-woven equipment, and the qualified rate of finished products The guarantee is also very high.

Welcome customers to visit the official website of SUNTECH Textile Machinery and provide us with suggestions.

non woven machine manufacturer

https://www.suntech-health.com/

Suntech enters the field of weaving machines

Zhejiang Strength Machinery Co., Ltd. is a leader in the field of textile and storage machinery in China. Headquartered in Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, it owns “Suntech”, “Strength” and other internationally renowned brands, focusing on the intelligent design of textile machinery and storage machinery. Manufacturing, providing solutions for textile machinery and intelligent storage machinery production lines for domestic and overseas enterprises.

In recent years, its subsidiary Suntech has invested capital and technology in the field of looms. Suntech made this decision because of two original reasons: 1. The loom is a closely connected product of its main series of products, just like its main cloth inspection and packaging line. Then the inspection and packaging system. 2. The market for looms in China has reached saturation, but most looms developed by Chinese manufacturers lack foreign innovative technology and high precision. In line with its mission, Suntech strives to create high-capacity and high-value-added looms belonging to China.

Suntech is not only limited to its success and growth in the domestic market. It has more than 4,500 customers and 15,000 machine installation cases around the world, and in Italy, Germany, Russia, the United States, Mexico, Brazil, Argentina, Colombia, Peru, Ecuador, Guatemala, Indonesia, Thailand, Philippines, India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Uzbekistan, Iran, Egypt, South Africa, Syria, Mauritius and other countries have agency networks.

Suntech pays attention to consumer acceptance and satisfaction, takes into account product performance and price advantages, realizes equipment automation with technological innovation and intelligent design, guarantees product performance and ease of use, and provides excellent Service and quality assurance, with customized equipment designed to meet the special needs of customers.

Suntech’s development history:

●In 1970, Suntech was formally established as China’s first state-owned “automatic packaging machine” manufacturer. With the mission of revitalizing China’s textile industry and relying on technological innovation, Suntech specializes in R&D and production of “textile industry finishing equipment”, specializing in the field of textile machinery. Become the leading “mechanical expert” in China at that time, with “automatic packaging machine” as the core product, and derived and developed star products such as cloth inspection machine, cloth inspection packaging line, etc., which has been unfailing for 50 years and formed today’s textile machinery production line.

●In 2000, 30 years of in-depth cultivation of textile machinery, to meet domestic textile storage needs, industrial integration and upgrading, and expansion of the “warehouse handling equipment” production line.

●In 2004, facing the spring breeze of reform and opening up, in order to better integrate into the market economy and go international, it transformed into a technology-based manufacturing company through “national reform to private ownership”.

●In 2016, a new factory was established to produce “warehouse handling equipment”, independent research and development of intelligent storage equipment “axle library”, and the formation of patented technology.

●At the beginning of 2020, when the epidemic broke out, Suntech realized that traditional industries rely on manual labor, and Chinese manufacturing must become “China’s intelligent manufacturing”. Sijusi began to develop “automated” intelligent products, including laser-guided AGVs and intelligent three-dimensional warehouses, which have now been successfully launched.

●At the beginning of 2021, Suntech entered the field of looms and soon developed ST series rapier looms. Introduced the super-start rapier loom with the fastest speed on the market, and optimized and iterated on the basis of the original principle, which solved many problems of traditional looms.

Suntech status and future prospects:

●Suntech’s business scope spans more than 80 countries, with 4,500 regular customers and 15,000 installation cases worldwide

●Market share: It takes about 3 years to achieve the textile machinery segmentation field, and the company’s product market share is the first in the world

●Brand awareness: Through service optimization, technological innovation, and quality upgrade, it will take about 3-5 years to become one of the three brands that customers are familiar with in this segment.

●Professional platform: It will take about 5-10 years to build a professional textile machinery platform for industry alliances and brands.

●Product upgrade: In the future, especially in the field of looms, Suntech will launch more loom series: water jet looms, air jet looms, jacquard looms, etc. Solve the problems of traditional loom series and create a unique loom series belonging to Suntech.

Problems and improvements of rapier looms on the market (1)

The rapier loom is a kind of shuttleless loom widely used at present. Its active weft insertion method has good variety adaptability, can adapt to the weft insertion of various yarns, and has obvious advantages in multi-color weft weaving. In the process of manufacturing and using the rapier loom, SUNTECH found that some of the loom designs were not satisfactory, there are many disadvantages of rapier loom ,so the equipment was improved.

Design a new weft insertion system to broaden the range of looms suitable for weaving
Due to the wide variety of fabrics on the market at present, the yarn numbers used in fabrics vary greatly, and the weft insertion systems of most looms on the market are no longer suitable for the weaving requirements of some fabrics. In order to meet the weaving needs of some fabric varieties, SUNTECH designed two new weft insertion systems based on the existing weft insertion systems based on the yarn characteristics of some fabrics.
One is a new type of wide rapier belt single-row guide hook weft insertion system. When weaving some jacquard decorative fabrics, when the common guide hook weft insertion system is used, loops are prone to appear on the reverse side of the fabric, and there are many broken warps and wefts. Therefore, on the basis of the existing double-row guide hook weft insertion system, the rear guide hook is removed, the front guide hook remains unchanged, and the profile of the movable guide rail, the rapier belt, the fixed guide rail channel, the dial clamp and the rapier belt library are widened. Wait. In order to reduce the weft break, the weft-feeding rapier’s clamping position was improved. The new wide rapier belt single-row guide hook weft insertion system can increase the speed of the loom, reduce the warp rate of the jacquard loom, and improve the production efficiency and start-up efficiency.
The second is the floating guide hook weft insertion system. When weaving fabrics such as glass fiber mesh cloth, steel wire mesh cloth, etc., due to the thick yarn number and hard material of the fabric, the existing weft insertion system guide hooks, sword belts, and sword heads wear quickly. For this reason, the shape of the ordinary guide hook has been improved, and the improved guide hook is called the suspension guide hook. When the suspension guide hook weft insertion system is used for weft insertion, the wear of the rapier belt by the lower warp yarn is reduced. In order to extend the service life of the sword head, the material of the guide groove of the weft feeding sword is changed from nylon plastic material to steel material, which enlarges the yarn clamping surface of the weft sword, and adds grooves to extend the guide hook of the weft insertion system. The life span of the sword belt and the sword head improves the efficiency of starting up.
The above two new weft insertion systems can improve the adaptability of ordinary rapier looms to different fabric varieties and broaden the loom’s suitable weaving range.Design a new weft insertion system to broaden the range of looms suitable for weaving
Due to the wide variety of fabrics on the market at present, the yarn numbers used in fabrics vary greatly, and the weft insertion systems of most looms on the market are no longer suitable for the weaving requirements of some fabrics. In order to meet the weaving needs of some fabric varieties, SUNTECH designed two new weft insertion systems based on the existing weft insertion systems based on the yarn characteristics of some fabrics.
One is a new type of wide rapier belt single-row guide hook weft insertion system. When weaving some jacquard decorative fabrics, when the common guide hook weft insertion system is used, loops are prone to appear on the reverse side of the fabric, and there are many broken warps and wefts. Therefore, on the basis of the existing double-row guide hook weft insertion system, the rear guide hook is removed, the front guide hook remains unchanged, and the profile of the movable guide rail, the rapier belt, the fixed guide rail channel, the dial clamp and the rapier belt library are widened. Wait. In order to reduce the weft break, the weft-feeding rapier’s clamping position was improved. The new wide rapier belt single-row guide hook weft insertion system can increase the speed of the loom, reduce the warp rate of the jacquard loom, and improve the production efficiency and start-up efficiency.
The second is the floating guide hook weft insertion system. When weaving fabrics such as glass fiber mesh cloth, steel wire mesh cloth, etc., due to the thick yarn number and hard material of the fabric, the existing weft insertion system guide hooks, sword belts, and sword heads wear quickly. For this reason, the shape of the ordinary guide hook has been improved, and the improved guide hook is called the suspension guide hook. When the suspension guide hook weft insertion system is used for weft insertion, the wear of the rapier belt by the lower warp yarn is reduced. In order to extend the service life of the sword head, the material of the guide groove of the weft feeding sword is changed from nylon plastic material to steel material, which enlarges the yarn clamping surface of the weft sword, and adds grooves to extend the guide hook of the weft insertion system. The life span of the sword belt and the sword head improves the efficiency of starting up.
The above two new weft insertion systems can improve the adaptability of ordinary rapier looms to different fabric varieties and broaden the loom’s suitable weaving range.

Measurement Methods of the Mechanical Properties of Fabrics

Tension Testing
Tensile testing is the most commonly applied test method for analyzing the mechanical properties of fabric materials. Although the direction of applied force is always in tension, there are a variety of tensile test methods available for capturing the most relevant data for final product usage.

The strip test is a tensile test in which the full width of the test specimen is gripped in the tensile grip jaws of a universal testing machine. During this test, tensile force is applied on the fabric specimen until it ruptures. Mechanical properties to analyze include the force at rupture and the elongation (expressed as percentage) at maximum force and/or at rupture.

The tongue tear method is often used to measure the tear force and the tear strength of a fabric specimen.

Trapezoidal tear is another tear strength test that uses a specimen prepared as an isosceles trapezoid with a small cut on one side. When testing starts and force is applied, the trapezoid tear produces tension along a reasonably defined course such that the tear propagates across the width of the specimen. This test method applies to most fabrics such as woven fabrics, air bag fabrics, blankets, napped, knitted, layered, and pile fabrics.

Seam strength is the strength of the connecting seams constituting the fabric. The grab test method and the strip test method can be used to measure the seam strength of fabric specimen.

Adhesion Coating Testing
Adhesion coating testing is applicable to fabrics with an adhesive coating compound applied, forming a chemical bond between the adhesive and the fabric material. The bond strength that is created between the coating compound and the fabric material can be measured running adhesion coating tests. If the adhesion is not strong enough, seam strength will decrease. If adhesion is too strong, problems may arise as tear strength will be affected. Standards outlining the minimum required criteria for specific fabric constructions can be used to ensure both the seam and tear strength are acceptable.

Puncture/Burst Testing
Puncture testing of fabric specimens determines the strength of a material by measuring the force required to penetrate the specimen. Contact with sharp edged objects in a real-world scenario is simulated by the use of puncture fixtures. Puncture fixtures are often used in the tensile direction but may also be used in the compressive direction. In order to calculate the specimen puncture resistance, the specimen is first stretched and placed on the ring clamp mechanism of the puncture fixture. Load is then applied by the puncture probe until specimen rupture.

Shear Testing
Shear testing ensures accurate data is collected to analyze the draping, flexibility and handling of textiles which show a wide range of complex deformations, such as woven fabrics. Depending on the fabric material, textile fabrics may show anisotropic behaviors and have different strength values in different directions, affecting the bending and tensile properties in various directions.

The ±45 degree off-axis tension test is recommended for shear characterization of woven fabric composites. Prior to applying load, the test specimen is prepared with strain gauges, one perpendicular and one parallel to the specimen length, and another 45ﹾ off-axis to determine the off-axis modulus of Elasticity, the off-axis Poisson’s ratio, and the shear coupling ratio.

Recommended Equipment for Fabric Strength Testing
A universal testing machine with constant-rate-of-extension equipped with a stationary bottom grip and with a top grip mounted on the moving crosshead is recommended for fabric tensile testing. The machine should be able to move at a constant speed throughout the test.

Pneumatic vise and manual vise grips are recommended for tensile testing of fabrics. Testing standards often recommend grips with specific jaw material and dimensions.

Specimen cutting dies may be required in the preparation stage of the specimens. Cutting dies are made following the specific sample dimensions delineated in testing standards.

FROM:admet

Basic introduction of textile machinery

Textile machinery is the kind of mechanical equipment needed to process natural or chemical fibers into textiles. Although the machinery for producing chemical fibers includes a variety of chemical machinery, it is now considered to be an extension of textile machinery and belongs to a broad-based textile machinery. The processes required to process different fibers such as cotton, hemp, silk, and wool into textiles are not the same, and some are completely different, so the machines required are various and varied. Textile machinery is usually classified according to the production process, including: spinning equipment, weaving equipment, printing and dyeing equipment, finishing equipment, chemical fiber spinning equipment, silk spinning equipment and non-woven fabric equipment. Spinning equipment is divided into two types: processing short fibers and processing long fibers. Cotton and cotton-type chemical fiber are short fibers, hair, hemp, and

The blended chemical fiber is a long fiber type. The processing of the two types of fibers is different, and the equipment is not universal, except that the design principles of some machines are similar. Even if the same type of equipment, the structure of the machine is similar, but due to the nature of the raw materials and the final requirements for the fabric, it is generally not universal.
Textile machinery is the production means and material basis of the textile industry. Its technical level, quality and manufacturing cost are directly related to the development of the textile industry.

What are the forms of equipment maintenance for textile enterprises?

The maintenance of equipment in textile enterprises is subject to regular repairs and is divided into two forms: preservation and maintenance.
(1) Security. Maintenance is the complete and complete disassembly and repair of textile equipment. By preserving, repairing or replacing all parts with excessive wear and tear tolerances, correcting the installation specifications and restoring the good technical performance of the machine. There are three types of preservation: overhaul (or big flat car), small repair (or small flat car) and partial security.

1. Overhaul (or flat car) is to disassemble all or most of the equipment, thoroughly clean, renovate the foundation and feet, repair or replace all parts that are out of tolerance, such as installing new equipment. The same, re-install and debug, restore the original performance of the device. The focus of the work is on the basic parts of the machine, the main machinery, the main components or the parts that are most stressed and easy to wear, so that the overhauled machinery and equipment can restore the original performance and repair the old.
2. Small repair (or small flat car) is to disassemble and repair parts of the machine equipment, repair or replace the parts with the degree of wear exceeding the tolerance standard, and restore the original performance of the machine equipment. The focus of the work is on the load part of the machine, the main part and the parts of the rotating part.
3. Partial preservation is to disassemble and repair a key part of the machine equipment, eliminate hidden dangers and ensure the normal operation of the equipment.
(2) Maintenance. Maintenance is to carry out maintenance and repair on the load part of the machine and equipment. By disassembling, repairing, adjusting and correcting the installation specifications of some parts, reducing power consumption, eliminating the malfunction of the machine equipment in time, laying a good foundation for the normal operation of the machine equipment. Repair of machinery and equipment. The maintenance of machinery and equipment of textile enterprises has four maintenance forms: key maintenance, professional maintenance, brake and refueling, and frequent maintenance.
1. Focus on overhaul, it is to disassemble and load the load parts and key parts of the equipment, replace worn parts, adjust the installation specifications, adjust the gauge, and ensure the good condition of the equipment.
2. Professional maintenance is a regular maintenance work on special parts or special equipment of machinery and equipment, so that the equipment and equipment are kept in good condition.
3. Brake and refueling, it is the cleaning machine: the flower hair on the P equipment, clean it, replace the vulnerable parts, regularly add fuel to the running friction parts, reduce power consumption, and prolong the service life of the equipment.
Due to the short braking cycle and many process parts involved, if the quality of the brakes is poor, quality accidents are likely to occur. Therefore, it should be paid attention to by equipment management departments, workshops and maintenance personnel. 4. Frequent overhaul is to inspect the running machinery and equipment, mainly equipment maintenance, that is, to eliminate the failure of the equipment and ensure the normal operation of the equipment.

Trending Textile Industry Increasing Demand for Dyes and Textile Chemicals

SHANGHAI — March 21, 2019 — The 19th China International Dye Industry, Pigments and Textile Chemicals Exhibition (China Interdye) and China International Digital Textile Printing, Printing and Dyeing Automatics Exhibition (China Textile Printing) are scheduled to take place from April 10th to 12th, 2019 at the Shanghai World Expo Exhibition & Convention Center. Hosted by China Dyestuff Industry Association, China Dyeing and Printing Association and China Council for the Promotion of International Trade, and Shanghai Sub-Council, and co-organized by Shanghai International Exhibition Service Co., Ltd., these two exhibitions will be themed as “Green and Integration”. With a total area of 40,000 square meters, the two exhibitions have so far attracted more than 650 enterprises from 17 countries and regions. The exhibits cover all kinds of advanced environment-friendly dyestuff, organic pigments, catalysts, intermediates, as well as environmental impact assessment equipment and digital textile printers in addition to printing and dyeing automation technologies and materials.

The textile industry has destocked for several years, increasing the development of the printing and dyeing industry. From January to November 2018, printing and dyeing enterprises above designated size produced 44.496 billion meters of printed and dyed cloth, up 2.26% year on year. Printing and dyeing enterprises above designated size realized 265.725 billion yuan in main business income, up 4.55% year on year. The total profit was 13.657 billion yuan, up 13.06% year on year. The cost of the main business was 232.984 billion yuan, up 4.77% year on year.

Historic Northern Textile Mills ‘Rapidly Being Lost’ Says Charity

Bradford, West Yorkshire, has seen more than 100 fires at historic mills since 2010, according to the public body.

Greater Manchester has lost almost half of its mills – including 66% in Salford – since the 1980s, it said.

Historic England said it hoped the “potential of our former industrial buildings” would be recognized.

The report ‘Engines of Prosperity: new uses for old mills’ said the buildings came to define the urban landscape across Cheshire, Greater Manchester, Lancashire and West Yorkshire and were the workshop of the world.

From the late 18th Century onwards, the mills drove the industrial revolution and triggered technical innovation, new trade and transformed the transport network, said the heritage charity.

But many of the buildings face uncertain futures following the 20th Century decline in textile manufacturing.

But there is a good news that SUNTECH provide Automatic Textile Machines for modern factory.

Historic England also made a call to re-use ‘original Northern Powerhouse’ mills in West Yorkshire in 2016.

There is public support for the survival of many of the country’s mills, according to Historic England which cited the 85% of respondents to its survey who said they did not want to see them demolished or replaced.

Pollsters You Gov questioned 2,028 people about the subject for Historic England.

John McGoldrick, curator of Armley Mills Industrial Museum near Leeds, said there is “no catch-all answer” to preserving mill buildings.

“A modern use for the mill depends on the circumstances. Some have massive historical significance but you must take each on its merits.

“Armley Mills is a perfect spot to tell the historical story of Leeds’ textile and many other trades but Holmes Mill in Clitheroe, Lancashire has been redeveloped differently as a shopping and food outlet. It’s just another way to expose visitors to industrial history.

“We would like to protect as many buildings as we can but we are also in the real world,” he said.

Historic England said it hoped the reports would galvanise owners and developers to see the potential offered by conversion instead of demolition.

Conversion stories
Schemes to put grade II listed mills back to use include:

Holden Mill, in Bolton, a cotton spinning mill built in 1926, converted to 275 apartments

Castleton Mills in Leeds, a former flax mill built in 1836, now renovated to house offices and studios

Holmes Mill in Clitheroe, Lancashire dating back to 1823, transformed into an entertainment venue

Source; Historic England

Different Types of Fabric Cutting Machines Used in Garment Production

Cutting is one of the processes in the garment manufacturing. In bulk garment manufacturing, multiple fabric layers are cut at a time by means of cutting machines. Different types of cutting machines and equipment are available for cutting fabrics and machines are used as per requirement and production volume. Semi-automatic and automatic improves cutting room productivity and improves cutting accuracy.

Different Types of cutting Machines
Cutting machine and equipment can be categorized as following
Manual cutting
Semi-automatic cutting machine
Fully automatic cutting machine
1. Manual cutting

Hand scissors are used for cutting fabric plies manually. Hand scissors are not machines but very useful cutting equipment. Factories may have semi-automatic and fully automatic machines for fabric cutting, but can’t avoid use of hand scissors in cutting section. Scissors are common tool in cutting process and hand scissors ha many use in cutting room.

2. Semi-automatic cutting machines

Straight Knife cutting machine:The straight knife is a common means of cutting lays in conventional cutting rooms because it is versatile, portable, cheaper than a band knife, more accurate on curves than a round knife and relatively reliable and easy to maintain. Even if a band knife is used for the main cutting operation, a straight knife would be used to separate the lay into sections for easier handling.

Band Knife cutting machine:
Band knives are used when a higher standard of cutting accuracy is required than can be obtained with a straight knife. Pieces to be cut are first cut on a block, and then cut exactly on a band knife.

Round knife cutting machine:
A round knife is used only for straight lines or lower no of lays of relatively few plies.

Die cutting machine:
This machine is useful where small motifs with particular shape and pattern and accuracy in cutting are needed.

3. Automatic cutting machines

There are different types of automatic fabric cutting machines. Here majorly used cutting machines in the garment industry are shown.

Computerized cutting machine:
Computerized cutting machines are used where high volume of garments is manufactured. This machine cuts fabric layers as per command given in computer system. Automatic cutting machine is also known as CNC machine. In the automatic cutting room, fabrics are spread on the table by auto spreader and the lay is positioned in the cutting table prior to automatic cutting. Many videos are available on the Youtube for automatic cutting machines.

Rib cutting machine:
Narrow fabric tape of rib is cut from knits fabric. Ribs are used in t-shirts neck finishing or piping operations and many other knits apparel manufacturing

Laser cutting machine:
Instead on blade fabric layer is cut by laser rays. Laser cutting machine is also computer controlled machine.

from:https://www.onlineclothingstudy.com/2016/12/different-types-of-fabric-cutting.html