Measurement Methods of the Mechanical Properties of Fabrics

Tension Testing
Tensile testing is the most commonly applied test method for analyzing the mechanical properties of fabric materials. Although the direction of applied force is always in tension, there are a variety of tensile test methods available for capturing the most relevant data for final product usage.

The strip test is a tensile test in which the full width of the test specimen is gripped in the tensile grip jaws of a universal testing machine. During this test, tensile force is applied on the fabric specimen until it ruptures. Mechanical properties to analyze include the force at rupture and the elongation (expressed as percentage) at maximum force and/or at rupture.

The tongue tear method is often used to measure the tear force and the tear strength of a fabric specimen.

Trapezoidal tear is another tear strength test that uses a specimen prepared as an isosceles trapezoid with a small cut on one side. When testing starts and force is applied, the trapezoid tear produces tension along a reasonably defined course such that the tear propagates across the width of the specimen. This test method applies to most fabrics such as woven fabrics, air bag fabrics, blankets, napped, knitted, layered, and pile fabrics.

Seam strength is the strength of the connecting seams constituting the fabric. The grab test method and the strip test method can be used to measure the seam strength of fabric specimen.

Adhesion Coating Testing
Adhesion coating testing is applicable to fabrics with an adhesive coating compound applied, forming a chemical bond between the adhesive and the fabric material. The bond strength that is created between the coating compound and the fabric material can be measured running adhesion coating tests. If the adhesion is not strong enough, seam strength will decrease. If adhesion is too strong, problems may arise as tear strength will be affected. Standards outlining the minimum required criteria for specific fabric constructions can be used to ensure both the seam and tear strength are acceptable.

Puncture/Burst Testing
Puncture testing of fabric specimens determines the strength of a material by measuring the force required to penetrate the specimen. Contact with sharp edged objects in a real-world scenario is simulated by the use of puncture fixtures. Puncture fixtures are often used in the tensile direction but may also be used in the compressive direction. In order to calculate the specimen puncture resistance, the specimen is first stretched and placed on the ring clamp mechanism of the puncture fixture. Load is then applied by the puncture probe until specimen rupture.

Shear Testing
Shear testing ensures accurate data is collected to analyze the draping, flexibility and handling of textiles which show a wide range of complex deformations, such as woven fabrics. Depending on the fabric material, textile fabrics may show anisotropic behaviors and have different strength values in different directions, affecting the bending and tensile properties in various directions.

The ±45 degree off-axis tension test is recommended for shear characterization of woven fabric composites. Prior to applying load, the test specimen is prepared with strain gauges, one perpendicular and one parallel to the specimen length, and another 45ﹾ off-axis to determine the off-axis modulus of Elasticity, the off-axis Poisson’s ratio, and the shear coupling ratio.

Recommended Equipment for Fabric Strength Testing
A universal testing machine with constant-rate-of-extension equipped with a stationary bottom grip and with a top grip mounted on the moving crosshead is recommended for fabric tensile testing. The machine should be able to move at a constant speed throughout the test.

Pneumatic vise and manual vise grips are recommended for tensile testing of fabrics. Testing standards often recommend grips with specific jaw material and dimensions.

Specimen cutting dies may be required in the preparation stage of the specimens. Cutting dies are made following the specific sample dimensions delineated in testing standards.

FROM:admet

Basic introduction of textile machinery

Textile machinery is the kind of mechanical equipment needed to process natural or chemical fibers into textiles. Although the machinery for producing chemical fibers includes a variety of chemical machinery, it is now considered to be an extension of textile machinery and belongs to a broad-based textile machinery. The processes required to process different fibers such as cotton, hemp, silk, and wool into textiles are not the same, and some are completely different, so the machines required are various and varied. Textile machinery is usually classified according to the production process, including: spinning equipment, weaving equipment, printing and dyeing equipment, finishing equipment, chemical fiber spinning equipment, silk spinning equipment and non-woven fabric equipment. Spinning equipment is divided into two types: processing short fibers and processing long fibers. Cotton and cotton-type chemical fiber are short fibers, hair, hemp, and

The blended chemical fiber is a long fiber type. The processing of the two types of fibers is different, and the equipment is not universal, except that the design principles of some machines are similar. Even if the same type of equipment, the structure of the machine is similar, but due to the nature of the raw materials and the final requirements for the fabric, it is generally not universal.
Textile machinery is the production means and material basis of the textile industry. Its technical level, quality and manufacturing cost are directly related to the development of the textile industry.

What are the forms of equipment maintenance for textile enterprises?

The maintenance of equipment in textile enterprises is subject to regular repairs and is divided into two forms: preservation and maintenance.
(1) Security. Maintenance is the complete and complete disassembly and repair of textile equipment. By preserving, repairing or replacing all parts with excessive wear and tear tolerances, correcting the installation specifications and restoring the good technical performance of the machine. There are three types of preservation: overhaul (or big flat car), small repair (or small flat car) and partial security.

1. Overhaul (or flat car) is to disassemble all or most of the equipment, thoroughly clean, renovate the foundation and feet, repair or replace all parts that are out of tolerance, such as installing new equipment. The same, re-install and debug, restore the original performance of the device. The focus of the work is on the basic parts of the machine, the main machinery, the main components or the parts that are most stressed and easy to wear, so that the overhauled machinery and equipment can restore the original performance and repair the old.
2. Small repair (or small flat car) is to disassemble and repair parts of the machine equipment, repair or replace the parts with the degree of wear exceeding the tolerance standard, and restore the original performance of the machine equipment. The focus of the work is on the load part of the machine, the main part and the parts of the rotating part.
3. Partial preservation is to disassemble and repair a key part of the machine equipment, eliminate hidden dangers and ensure the normal operation of the equipment.
(2) Maintenance. Maintenance is to carry out maintenance and repair on the load part of the machine and equipment. By disassembling, repairing, adjusting and correcting the installation specifications of some parts, reducing power consumption, eliminating the malfunction of the machine equipment in time, laying a good foundation for the normal operation of the machine equipment. Repair of machinery and equipment. The maintenance of machinery and equipment of textile enterprises has four maintenance forms: key maintenance, professional maintenance, brake and refueling, and frequent maintenance.
1. Focus on overhaul, it is to disassemble and load the load parts and key parts of the equipment, replace worn parts, adjust the installation specifications, adjust the gauge, and ensure the good condition of the equipment.
2. Professional maintenance is a regular maintenance work on special parts or special equipment of machinery and equipment, so that the equipment and equipment are kept in good condition.
3. Brake and refueling, it is the cleaning machine: the flower hair on the P equipment, clean it, replace the vulnerable parts, regularly add fuel to the running friction parts, reduce power consumption, and prolong the service life of the equipment.
Due to the short braking cycle and many process parts involved, if the quality of the brakes is poor, quality accidents are likely to occur. Therefore, it should be paid attention to by equipment management departments, workshops and maintenance personnel. 4. Frequent overhaul is to inspect the running machinery and equipment, mainly equipment maintenance, that is, to eliminate the failure of the equipment and ensure the normal operation of the equipment.

Trending Textile Industry Increasing Demand for Dyes and Textile Chemicals

SHANGHAI — March 21, 2019 — The 19th China International Dye Industry, Pigments and Textile Chemicals Exhibition (China Interdye) and China International Digital Textile Printing, Printing and Dyeing Automatics Exhibition (China Textile Printing) are scheduled to take place from April 10th to 12th, 2019 at the Shanghai World Expo Exhibition & Convention Center. Hosted by China Dyestuff Industry Association, China Dyeing and Printing Association and China Council for the Promotion of International Trade, and Shanghai Sub-Council, and co-organized by Shanghai International Exhibition Service Co., Ltd., these two exhibitions will be themed as “Green and Integration”. With a total area of 40,000 square meters, the two exhibitions have so far attracted more than 650 enterprises from 17 countries and regions. The exhibits cover all kinds of advanced environment-friendly dyestuff, organic pigments, catalysts, intermediates, as well as environmental impact assessment equipment and digital textile printers in addition to printing and dyeing automation technologies and materials.

The textile industry has destocked for several years, increasing the development of the printing and dyeing industry. From January to November 2018, printing and dyeing enterprises above designated size produced 44.496 billion meters of printed and dyed cloth, up 2.26% year on year. Printing and dyeing enterprises above designated size realized 265.725 billion yuan in main business income, up 4.55% year on year. The total profit was 13.657 billion yuan, up 13.06% year on year. The cost of the main business was 232.984 billion yuan, up 4.77% year on year.

Historic Northern Textile Mills ‘Rapidly Being Lost’ Says Charity

Bradford, West Yorkshire, has seen more than 100 fires at historic mills since 2010, according to the public body.

Greater Manchester has lost almost half of its mills – including 66% in Salford – since the 1980s, it said.

Historic England said it hoped the “potential of our former industrial buildings” would be recognized.

The report ‘Engines of Prosperity: new uses for old mills’ said the buildings came to define the urban landscape across Cheshire, Greater Manchester, Lancashire and West Yorkshire and were the workshop of the world.

From the late 18th Century onwards, the mills drove the industrial revolution and triggered technical innovation, new trade and transformed the transport network, said the heritage charity.

But many of the buildings face uncertain futures following the 20th Century decline in textile manufacturing.

But there is a good news that SUNTECH provide Automatic Textile Machines for modern factory.

Historic England also made a call to re-use ‘original Northern Powerhouse’ mills in West Yorkshire in 2016.

There is public support for the survival of many of the country’s mills, according to Historic England which cited the 85% of respondents to its survey who said they did not want to see them demolished or replaced.

Pollsters You Gov questioned 2,028 people about the subject for Historic England.

John McGoldrick, curator of Armley Mills Industrial Museum near Leeds, said there is “no catch-all answer” to preserving mill buildings.

“A modern use for the mill depends on the circumstances. Some have massive historical significance but you must take each on its merits.

“Armley Mills is a perfect spot to tell the historical story of Leeds’ textile and many other trades but Holmes Mill in Clitheroe, Lancashire has been redeveloped differently as a shopping and food outlet. It’s just another way to expose visitors to industrial history.

“We would like to protect as many buildings as we can but we are also in the real world,” he said.

Historic England said it hoped the reports would galvanise owners and developers to see the potential offered by conversion instead of demolition.

Conversion stories
Schemes to put grade II listed mills back to use include:

Holden Mill, in Bolton, a cotton spinning mill built in 1926, converted to 275 apartments

Castleton Mills in Leeds, a former flax mill built in 1836, now renovated to house offices and studios

Holmes Mill in Clitheroe, Lancashire dating back to 1823, transformed into an entertainment venue

Source; Historic England

Different Types of Fabric Cutting Machines Used in Garment Production

Cutting is one of the processes in the garment manufacturing. In bulk garment manufacturing, multiple fabric layers are cut at a time by means of cutting machines. Different types of cutting machines and equipment are available for cutting fabrics and machines are used as per requirement and production volume. Semi-automatic and automatic improves cutting room productivity and improves cutting accuracy.

Different Types of cutting Machines
Cutting machine and equipment can be categorized as following
Manual cutting
Semi-automatic cutting machine
Fully automatic cutting machine
1. Manual cutting

Hand scissors are used for cutting fabric plies manually. Hand scissors are not machines but very useful cutting equipment. Factories may have semi-automatic and fully automatic machines for fabric cutting, but can’t avoid use of hand scissors in cutting section. Scissors are common tool in cutting process and hand scissors ha many use in cutting room.

2. Semi-automatic cutting machines

Straight Knife cutting machine:The straight knife is a common means of cutting lays in conventional cutting rooms because it is versatile, portable, cheaper than a band knife, more accurate on curves than a round knife and relatively reliable and easy to maintain. Even if a band knife is used for the main cutting operation, a straight knife would be used to separate the lay into sections for easier handling.

Band Knife cutting machine:
Band knives are used when a higher standard of cutting accuracy is required than can be obtained with a straight knife. Pieces to be cut are first cut on a block, and then cut exactly on a band knife.

Round knife cutting machine:
A round knife is used only for straight lines or lower no of lays of relatively few plies.

Die cutting machine:
This machine is useful where small motifs with particular shape and pattern and accuracy in cutting are needed.

3. Automatic cutting machines

There are different types of automatic fabric cutting machines. Here majorly used cutting machines in the garment industry are shown.

Computerized cutting machine:
Computerized cutting machines are used where high volume of garments is manufactured. This machine cuts fabric layers as per command given in computer system. Automatic cutting machine is also known as CNC machine. In the automatic cutting room, fabrics are spread on the table by auto spreader and the lay is positioned in the cutting table prior to automatic cutting. Many videos are available on the Youtube for automatic cutting machines.

Rib cutting machine:
Narrow fabric tape of rib is cut from knits fabric. Ribs are used in t-shirts neck finishing or piping operations and many other knits apparel manufacturing

Laser cutting machine:
Instead on blade fabric layer is cut by laser rays. Laser cutting machine is also computer controlled machine.

from:https://www.onlineclothingstudy.com/2016/12/different-types-of-fabric-cutting.html

Slitting Machine Development History

The slitting machine is a prepressing and postpressing machine that cuts a large roll of paper, film, non-woven fabric, aluminum foil, mica tape and other thin materials into small rolls of different widths, which are commonly used in papermaking machinery and printing and packaging machinery.

In the past, the speed of the magnetic powder clutch of the slitting machine could not be high, because it would easily cause high-speed friction of the magnetic powder during operation, generate high temperature, shorten its life, and it would be stuck in serious cases, which would hinder the operation of the machine and bring serious consequences to the production.

Heavy impact on production efficiency. Now it is controlled by double-conversion motor, so that the magnetic powder friction is controlled to a certain value by the variable frequency motor control when the diameter of the winding material becomes larger. There is no high temperature.

Suntech is one of the leading designers & manufacturers on textile machines for weaving & finishing units, especially for Fabric Make-up Machines and Material Storage & Handling Equipments. Over 45 years experience, Suntech now has its brand office in Hong Kong and two factories in Ningbo city, Zhejiang. In year 2018, Suntech becomes a member of Zhejiang Strength Machinery Group,which is located in Hangzhou city, Zhejiang.

FROM:HAVESINO

The Textile Firm Making Polyester Desirable

An anonymous white factory building on a country lane in rural Japan seems a world away from the glamorous fashion houses of Europe.

Yet while the modest home of Japanese company Daiichi Orimono is indeed thousands of miles from France and Italy, representatives from the likes of Louis Vuitton and Gucci are regular and enthusiastic visitors.

This is because inside the facility 100 textile looms drum noisily, weaving unique – and much in demand – synthetic fabrics that look and feel like cotton and linen.

Polyester and nylon may have a bad historic reputation for producing cheap and uncomfortable clothes, but such is the quality of Daiichi Orimono’s textiles that they are now extensively used by many of the world’s most expensive fashion brands.

From the coats of Italy’s Moncler, to the sleek jackets of Prada and Celine, much of the fabric is made in Daiichi Orimono’s factory in Fukui prefecture, on the northern coast of Japan’s main island, Honshu.

But how did a small 70-year-old Japanese company that started out making sails reinvent itself as a key supplier to many of the world’s most coveted luxury fashion brands? And how did it become a business with annual sales of 23bn yen ($210m; £148m) despite still only employing 60 people?

It is a success story based on acute attention to detail, Japanese “omotenashi” or hospitality, and a rather driven and determined boss.

Daiichi Orimono’s chief executive Ryuji Yoshioka took over the reigns of the company from his father 35 years ago, when it was just a humble sports fabric manufacturer.

In the early 1990s he built the then new factory in Fukui, a region of Japan famous for its synthetic fabric manufacturing, and invested heavily in first class loom machinery.

Mr Yoshioka’s timing could not have been worse.

“As soon as we built the factory the [economic] bubble burst, and we lost clients [in Japan],” he says. “I had to be courageous because I had a great responsibility to feed my employees.”

Mr Yoshioka knew the company would fail if it relied upon the fickle Japanese market, so there was only one thing to do – he needed to attract overseas buyers.

“Back then there was no one who could speak foreign languages in the company, and no employees who were good at international sales, and so as the head of the company I had to go by myself,” he says.

“It was very stressful, but the responsibility and the sense of duty drove me forward.”

He started by targeting South Korea and Italy because those countries didn’t have a negative impression of synthetic materials.

At the time no other Japanese textile manufacturers were looking to sell overseas, and the industries that did export their merchandise used trading companies.

Mr Yoshioka decided that he’d cut out the middle man and try to sell direct to clients. He said this was vital so that he could properly explain about the fabrics his company could make.

So embracing omotenashi he decided to take potential clients out for dinner.

“I love delicious food, there’s nothing I cannot eat, and I love to drink, and anywhere I go I wouldn’t stop drinking before the client did.”

Soon Daiichi Orimono started to win overseas orders, and it hasn’t looked back.

Today, 70% of the company’s sales are to overseas customers – 30% to Europe, 30% to Asia, and 10% to North America. Its fabric is delivered to customers on giant rolls.

But what exactly makes Daiichi Orimono’s synthetic fabrics so special? There are numerous factors including the fact that its polyester and nylon is more densely woven than any others on the market.

Also vital is Japanese attention to detail and quality control, with Daiichi Orimono employees checking the yarns by hand and eye to make sure that the tensions and weaves are entirely correct.

Mr Yoshioka says he remembers very clearly the first day that Louis Vuitton and Moncler put in bulk orders.

“It was so surprising that I visited their companies and asked – is this really the fabric you want to use?

“I remember thinking repeatedly – do they think they are talking to a CEO of a different company?”

But the two fashion houses knew exactly who they were taking to.

While Daiichi Orimono currently does all its deals face to face, Mr Yoshioka says that in the future it is inevitable that the company will move into ecommerce, and so it is revamping its website.

Slitting And Rewinding Machine

1. equipment automatically line, count, slitting, winding at the same time. The end surface neat level.

2. the equipment is equipped with infrared automatic double counting device and automatic stop function.

3. equipment with pneumatic automatic distribution device, pneumatic shaft automatic unwinding, pneumatic wide belt with a long roll synchronous conveying device, cutting automatic pneumatic lifting device, mobile device, pneumatic separation about real spiral drilling, light and smooth, and can adjust the inclination of drilling.

4. hole pitch gear equipped with CVT from 10cm-60cm, do not change gears automatically adjust line spacing length. Also can be equipped with PLC programming and electric servo control, the perforation pitch infinitely adjustable.

5. the machine is equipped with adjustable force device two, can produce core coreless rewinding products, drilling, slitting, rewinding or non drilling, slitting, rewinding, equipped with adjustable products rewinding, tightness, pneumatic compression device.

6. the equipment adopts import frequency conversion control speed regulation, and the wiring of the electrical parts is reasonable, beautiful, generous and convenient to operate.

7. can be equipped with a tailstock magnetic tension system.
The company provides customers with a variety of unwinding, take-up methods, magnetic particle force control, horizontal expansion force control, conveyor belt control, servo control, expansion force and other methods to meet the requirements of various product production, to achieve the best effect of slitting

Suntech new product ST-WFIM-G Fabric Inspection Machine

Suntech new product ST-WFIM-G Fabric Inspection Machine is used to handle a wide range of rolled fabrics, which is especially designed for garment factories. This machine can be used for fabric inspection, measuring, rolling and cross cutting purpose.

Ergonomically designed
Fast and Easily handled, requiring for one operator only
Improve fabric quality
Synchronize production process
Provide objective quality reporting
Reduce administration

Speed: 5-60m/min
Fabric Width: 1.8-4.0 meters
Standard Roll Diameter: 300mm
Electric Specs: 3 phase, 380V; 50HZ (can be adjusted to suit for different countries)
Remark: Variable working width is possible and can be tailor-made to your requirements of processing needs.

ST-WFIM-G

Features:

  • Accurate Length Counting(Y/M)-Counting error ≤1m/km.
  • Full Width Fabric Inspection- with 30 degree fixed angle inspection screen.
  • Sturdy Device for the coming fabric roll unwinding
  • Movable Wheels
  • Linear Fabric End Cutter- Optional